Outdoor racing dates back millennia, but the … Sweden took gold in 1912, and Finland, led by Paavo Nurmi, captured the gold in 1920 and 1924. Formerly included on the Olympic program, cross-country was dropped after 1924 as not suitable for summer competition. Packing and sanitizing. In middle school, races are more serious and are divided by grade and gender. Over 900 men's cross country teams and over 1000 women's cross country teams compete in the three divisions of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Matters were not helped by the fact that the race was run in the dark, as it began at 5 pm. How to use cross-country in a sentence. It involves several competitors racing from point to point as fast as they can on trails which … The course was not well marked, and many competitors got lost. Ethiopia or Kenya has captured every men's title since 1981 and every women's title since 2001. [5], Every state offers cross country as a high school sport for boys and girls. For each technique – classic technique or free technique – different equipment is utilized. Any person who holds a pilot certificate (Anything from a student to an ATP pilot certificate) that flies from one point of takeoff to a different point of landing can log "cross country" flight time. Thirty years later the Thames Rowing Club held cross-country runs and races as a winter sport to condition rowers, and in a few years many other clubs were formed throughout England. Most important, however, is the training beforehand. Classic style cross-country skiing is the age old, traditional discipline of Nordic skiing. Cross-country teams are made up of six to nine athletes. [25], Most American universities and colleges field men's and women's cross country teams as part of their athletic program. Photos of such events can be found here. Cross-country hiking basically is hiking where there are no hiking trails. The courses used at these events may include grass, mud, woodlands, hills, … Cross Country races include many more athletes. A form of cross-country running in the early 19th century was called paper chasing, or hare and hounds—the “hares” started a few minutes before the others and left a trail of paper scraps to be followed by the “hounds.” Cross-country runners came to be known as harriers, after a small hound used to chase genuine hares. Cross-country definition, directed or proceeding over fields, through woods, etc., rather than on a road or path: a cross-country race. NNN means New Nordic Norm. [14] Since 1928, cross country has been contested only as the fifth discipline of the modern pentathlon, and until 2016 it was the only discipline where the Olympic competition was only part of the modern pentathlon. English schools started competing in cross country races in 1837, and established a national championship on 7 December 1867. In 1962 the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF; later International Association of Athletics Federations) adopted rules governing championship and international cross-country running events both for men and for women. The classic technique. The crown jewel among Minnesota’s many cross-country skiing destinations is the Gunflint Trail in far northeast Minnesota. Cross-country … By definition, cross-country time includes any flight conducted by a pilot in an aircraft that includes a landing at a point other than the point of departure that includes the use of dead reckoning, pilotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or other navigation systems to navigate to the landing point. Cross-country skiing at Buena Vista ski area in Bemidji Northern Minnesota. After planning, get your supplies in order. [citation needed] The race was about 3.5 miles long, and went through very boggy and hilly terrain. Track and cross-country … Classic technique: Cross-country skiing technique characterized by opposite-leg and opposite-arm motion in a straight-ahead direction. [5], Because of differences between courses in running surface, frequency and tightness of turns, and amount of up and downhill, cross country strategy does not necessarily simplify to running a steady pace from start to finish. [9], Formal cross country competition traces its history to the 19th century and an English game called "hare and hounds" or "the paper chase". At the beginning, it is good to know what the abbreviations mean. Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. So if you have NNN ski boots, you can use them just with NNN bindings. A sport or competition consisting of a cross-country footrace, from two to six miles (1.2-3.7 km), usually between teams of contestants. However, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance. Events are held … This includes products for keeping hands and surfaces clean and sanitized. https://www.britannica.com/sports/cross-country, International Association of Athletics Federations. English championships over the senior distance of 10 miles (16,090 metres) were first held in 1877. Although open-air running competitions are prehistoric, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain. [11] One athlete began to run in tight circles after reaching the stadium and later knocked himself unconscious,[12] while another fainted 50 meters from the finish. In 1907 France first competed in this championship, followed by Belgium in 1924; Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, and Switzerland first competed in 1929; and other countries entered the international competition after World War II. Over 440,000 high school students compete in cross country each year, making it the sixth-most popular sport for girls, and seventh most popular for boys. Here's where things get tricky. The course, typically 4–12 kilometres (2.5–7.5 mi) long, may include surfaces of grass, and earth, pass through woodlands and open country, and include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. The most common footwear are cross country spikes, lightweight racing shoes with a rubber sole and five or more metal spikes screwed into the forefoot part of the sole. The sport originated in the Scandinavian countries of Northern Europe, although it is practiced in many heavily snow-covered areas around the world today. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The meet started in 1948 and continues today.[28]. [13] Although the reports of deaths were unfounded, spectators were shocked by the attrition rate and Olympic officials decided to ban cross country running from future Games. [23], Primary schools, although more often the juniors, also participate in cross country events and some areas of England have done so since the late 1960s. Cross country running is an individual and team sport for runners who run outdoors over natural terrain that can include grass, hills, and woods. A cross-country mountain biking race. The number of runners in this event increased from 33 in the first race to 900 in the second half of the 20th century. International Cross Country Championships, 2010 European Cross Country Championships, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Great Edinburgh International Cross Country, Thompson Estate and Eastern Suburbs Athletics, USATF National Club Cross Country Championships, World Athletics Book of Rules C2.1 - Technical Rules (amended on 31 January 2020), 2011/2012 NCAA Men's and Women's Track & Field and Cross Country Rules, "Paavo Nurmi at the Olympic Games – Paris 1924", "50 stunning Olympic moments No31: Paavo Nurmi wins 5,000m in 1924", USATF Cross Country Championships Media Handbook, Australian Masters Nationals Championships, Thompson Estate Athletics, Brisbane athletics and cross country running club, Thompson Estate Athletics, Brisbane athletics and cross country running club photos, National Federation of State High School Associations, About The Mt. Airline Transport Pilot Certificate Requirements. Markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones. Cross country is an equivalency sport which means all scholarships are not full scholarships, and coaches may divide the total number of scholarships allotted to them between as many athletes as they wish. While spikes are suitable for grassy, muddy, or other slippery conditions, runners may choose to wear racing flats, rubber-soled racing shoes without spikes, if the course includes significant portions of paved surfaces or dirt road. Integral to NASCAR’s founding in the late 1940s was Bill France, an auto…. Runners should also account for food intake prior to the race. In high school, the races are far-reaching and tend to be the main talent pool (especially at the senior level) for university- or national-level runners. 1. Your gear needs are modest, as are trail … Your gear needs are modest, as are trail fees, and you can be up and scooting across a pristine winter landscape in no time. In Queensland this Queensland Athletics. [2], While a course may include natural or artificial obstacles, cross country courses support continuous running, and do not require climbing over high barriers, through deep ditches, or fighting through the underbrush, as do military-style assault courses. Courses also commonly include distance markings, usually at each kilometer or each mile. Outdoor racing dates back millennia, but the rules of contemporary cross country running were first developed in late 19th-century Britain. Through 2010, Kenya has won 40 World Cross Country Championships and Ethiopia has won 23. An ATP certificate … During the 1924 race in the Paris heat wave, only 15 of the 38 competitors reached the finish. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the umbrella sport of athletics and is a natural-terrain version of long-distance track and road running. Runners who do not have a full team are … During the season there is usually one race each week in a different park, generally organized and hosted by one of the participating clubs. [21], The cross country season in Brisbane is usually March – September. Many people think of them as the same sport when in fact, they are both unique in their own distinct ways. San Antonio College (Mt. From one side of a country to the … Cross-country definition is - extending or moving across a country. Cross country running can take place over grass, mud, dirt trails, rocky areas, water, hills, etc. In particularly cold conditions, long-sleeved shirts and tights can be worn to retain warmth without losing mobility. Most races are run in shorts and vests or singlets, usually in club or school colours. By definition, cross-country time includes any flight conducted by a pilot in an aircraft that includes a landing at a point other than the point of departure that includes the use of dead reckoning, pilotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or other navigation systems to navigate to the landing point. [6][7][8], Cross country running involves very little specialized equipment. First off, let‘s limit some possible confusion. [3], In the United States, college men typically compete on 8 km (5.0 mi) or 10 km (6.2 mi) courses, while college women race for 5 km (3.1 mi) or 6 km (3.7 mi). SNS means Salomon Nordic System. … [1] The course, typically 4–12 kilometres (2.5–7.5 mi) long, may include surfaces of grass, and earth, pass through woodlands and open country, and include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. Coaches and cross country runners debate the relative merits of fast starts to get clear of the field, versus steady pacing to maximize physiological efficiency. Updates? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [4], The course should have 400 to 1,200 m (440 to 1,310 yd) of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact and congestion at the start. In this sense, cross-country hiking is similar to cross-country skiing where skiers move across snowy terrain without the use of ski lifts or … Cross Country is similar to golf in that the lowest score wins. These trails range from fire roads to technical singletrack. We know the two types of riding styles often cross over and that some trail riders compete in cross country events and vice versa.) Although open-air running competitions are prehistoric, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain. Track and cross-country share scholarship money which means that they have to divide up the scholarship amounts in both sports between them. The classic technique. An example would be schools near Ouston, County Durham which compete as part of Chester-le-Street & District Primary Cross Country Association. In addition to crowning national champions, the championships serve as the trials race to select the Team USA squad for the IAAF World Cross Country Championships. Senior men and women compete on a 10 kilometre course. [16], Beyond championships, IAAF world cross country meetings include the Great Edinburgh International Cross Country, Cross Internacional de Itálica, Antrim International Cross Country, Cinque Mulini, Nairobi Cross, Chiba International Cross Country, Fukuoka International Cross Country meet, Eurocross and Almond Blossom Cross Country. NASCAR, sanctioning body for stock-car racing in North America, founded in 1948 in Daytona Beach, Fla., and responsible for making stock-car racing a widely popular sport in the United States by the turn of the 21st century. Since 1973, the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships. Cross-country runners compete in distance races that typically take place on non-paved running paths. Both men and women of all ages compete in cross country, which usually takes place during autumn and winter, and can include weather conditions of rain, sleet, snow or hail, and a wide range of temperatures. Also called kick and glide, this is the technique primarily associated with cross-country … It is easily recognizable by the diagonal stride technique used, that looks like you’re walking on skis.. Many other famous schools followed suit in holding annual cross-country races. A significant event was the founding of the Crick Run at Rugby School in 1837. Some teams emphasize running in a group in order to provide encouragement to others on the team, while others hold that every individual should run his or her own race. Omissions? If a course has a harder surface, spikes as short as 6 millimetres (0.24 in) may be most effective. Spike length depends on race conditions, with a muddy course appropriate for spikes as long as 25 millimetres (0.98 in). … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). cross-country meaning: 1. CROSS COUNTRY (XC) RIDING. The first women’s international cross-country event was held at Barry, Wales, in 1967. Moving or directed across open country rather than following tracks, roads, or runs: a cross-country race. But since cross-country skiing is a winter … Events are held during the fall or winter months, and many amateur athletes use the sport as a means of keeping fit and developing stamina. Athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. The first international race was held in 1898 between England and France, and in 1903 a championship was instituted among England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. [27], Mt. Called variously "Nordic skiing," "ski touring," "track skiing," … It is both an individual and a team sport; runners are judged on individual times and teams by a points-scoring metho… The USATF Masters 5 km Cross Country Championships, first held in 2002, incl men's race and a women's race. 1. You'll need shorts or running pants, shirt, a layer or two if you're headed somewhere high (like mountain trails), a drinking bottle or bladder for water, and some running shoes. It is both an individual and a team sport; runners are judged on individual times and teams by a points-scoring method. See more. The USATF National Club Cross Country Championships, first held in 1998, feature the top clubs from across the United States as they vie for honors and bragging rights as the nation's top cross country team. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, and spectators from interfering with the competition. Corrections? Now, when you know it you can forget it, as usually everywhere just the three magic letters SNS and NNN are used.Both systems are not compatible. In scoring, the places in which team members finish (e.g., one point for first place, two points for second) are added together, and the team with the lowest total wins. Cross country running is an individual and team sport for runners who run outdoors over natural terrain that can include grass, hills, and woods. (krôs′kŭn′trē, krŏs′-) Abbr. The sport of skinny skis—aka cross-country skiing—is enjoying a renaissance for all sorts of reasons, one of which is how accessible it is to beginners. SAC Cross Country Invitational, FISU World University Cross Country Championships, CISM World Military Cross Country Championships, North America, Central America and Caribbean, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cross_country_running&oldid=995956387, Discontinued Summer Olympic disciplines in athletics, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Havitz, Mark E., and Eric D. Zemper, "'Worked Out in Infinite Detail': Michigan State College's Lauren P. Brown and the Origins of the NCAA Cross Country Championships,", This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 19:39. If you are just starting out, classic cross-country … XC or X-C. adj. Additionally, many mountain bike races … Junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course and junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course. Some cross-country courses are pancake-flat, but these are the exceptions. 2. It was the first cross country race that was considered "open", or could be run by anyone. Cross-country skiing, skiing in open country over rolling, hilly terrain as found in Scandinavian countries, where the sport originated as a means of travel as well as recreation and where it remains popular. [5], Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 1750 and 2000 meters. Cross-country racing emphasizes endurance above technical prowess, and races vary from 30 minutes to 24 hours in length. cool-down Slow run or jog to loosen muscles after a race to rid … [18], Cross country running is organized at the state level by the athletics association for each state. Reference: 14 CFR 61.1(b)(3)(i). In 1975, the New Zealand men and United States women won, marking the first championships by non-European countries. The sport of skinny skis—aka cross-country skiing—is enjoying a renaissance for all sorts of reasons, one of which is how accessible it is to beginners. try. Cross country mountain biking is a popular and least extreme discipline of mountain biking. [10], Cross country was contested as a team and individual event at the 1912, 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics. – … By definition, cross - country time includes any flight conducted by a pilot in an aircraft that includes a landing at a point other than the point of departure that includes the use of dead reckoning, pilotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or other navigation systems to … If you are just starting out, classic cross-country skiing is quite easy to learn regardless of the snow quality. In 1981 an African nation (Ethiopia) won the men's race for the first time, and a decade later an African nation (Kenya) won the women's race for the first time. Because of the varying difficulty of courses, world records are not maintained. The famous Midlands Club’s Birchfield Harriers won many of these events thereafter. Since then, cross-country skiing has evolved so that it can now be enjoyed in a wide variety of forms. Geriatrician June McKoy, associate professor of medicine at … In fact, Norway is home to a 4,000-year-old rock carving that clearly shows a man standing … Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. A cross country rider generally enjoys twisty singletrack, hilly efforts, the occasional jump or rock drop and smaller adrenaline-inducing trail features. Basically, a cross-country skiers equipment consists of skies, poles & boots. Cross-country, also called cross-country running, long-distance running over open country; unlike the longer marathon race, cross-country races usually are not run along roads or paths. Cross-country definition: Cross-country is the sport of running, riding, or skiing across open countryside rather... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers. Cross Country and Track are two of the most mentally challenging sports out there, but they are very different. The English championship became the first national competition in 1876, and the International Cross Country Championships … https://www.bikestation.org/best-cross-country-mountain-bikes Prepare your gear. The USA Cross Country Championships, first held in 1890, include six races: masters women (8 km), masters men (8 km), junior women (6 km), junior men (8 km), open women (8 km) and open men (12 km). Types of Cross Country Skiing . [13] José Andía and Edvin Wide were reported dead,[14] and medics spent hours trying to find all the competitors who had blacked out along the course. Some cross-country courses are pancake-flat, but these are the exceptions. In addition, whether you run ahead 'of the pack' or behind it and pull ahead in the end is important, but can vary according to the runner's individual skill, endurance, and the length of the race. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the umbrella sport of athletics and is a natural-terrain version of long-distance track and road running. Formerly included on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.... No different imitate steeplechase for off-season training, and went through very boggy and hilly terrain 3.5 miles,! Paavo Nurmi, captured the gold in 1920 and 1924 running involves little! Included on the ground, or runs: a cross-country race from 33 in second... 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( over 30 ), this is the training beforehand was held on Wimbledon Common south-west... Common in south-west London called kick and glide, this is the age old, discipline! At Barry, Wales, in 1967 1924 as not suitable for summer.. Suitable for summer competition their own distinct ways markings, usually in Club or school colours level the! Moving over long distances through the countryside: 2… LeRoy Oakes Forest Preserve what is cross country Track & Field USATF! – September 24 hours in length much shorter distance – September sports out there, they... Dirt trails, rocky areas, water, hills, etc won, marking first. The 20th century courses are pancake-flat, but the … cross-country definition is - extending or moving across country! Singlets, usually in Club or school colours 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8,! Summer competition losing mobility above technical prowess, and was considered a bit of a country individual and team... Practiced in many heavily snow-covered areas around the World today. [ ]! 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Interfering with the top five runners occupying the first five finishing positions hands and clean! The technique primarily associated with cross-country … try between them are agreeing to news,,!, international Association of Athletics Federations these are the exceptions limit some possible confusion very different runners occupying the race. A far-reaching sport in Canada moving across a country by Australian Masters Athletics first country. & Field and Cross country racing emerged in Britain jump or rock drop and adrenaline-inducing!