Five Generations of Programming Languages First MachineLanguages machine codes Second AssemblyLanguages symbolic assemblers Third High Level ProceduralLanguages (machine independent) imperative languages Fourth Non-proceduralLanguages domain specific application generators Fifth NaturalLanguages Each generation is at a higher level of abstraction Chapter Outlines Chapter 1 begins with a rationale for studying programming languages. Machine language is the lowest and most elementary level of programming language and was the first type of programming language to be developed. Fahad Khan A programming language is used by programmers to write instructions for computers and on the basis of these instructions a computer performs various tasks/operations. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. °.T—žŽußñ\ù~–e“8ú[ç¶Ýý«½f~ãþÏæzoØ5ìvꗚÈ×È`[Ás 1Ê0Ûa ë­rwEu§E¾Y%0ÜAÐÖÀëŒKÇÄ$ٺ܇RIiîq‚ZõdE½)Xæû"ËùD£–#$91~ÙÞçÅjûœ{‰‰Ø­A:±Øï6û¼V2ۍü The study of type systems--and of programming languages from a type-theoretic perspective -- -has important applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compilers, and security.This text provides a comprehensive introduction both to type systems in computer science and to the basic theory of programming languages. A type system is a syntactic method for automatically checking the absence of certain erroneous behaviors by classifying program phrases according to the kinds of values they compute. endobj A type system is a syntactic method for enforcing levels of abstraction in programs. At the end of the chapter, you should have learned: what programming paradigms are; an overview of different programming languages and the background knowledge of these Нª^ÇrŽ!‹1d?ɍå{´…>Wèv×T/ª|o{¤©_TÛw¤{F»!¹ The machine language is sometimes referred to as machine code or object … Recent work on dependent types in programming languages can be roughly divided into two streams: •designing languages with full dependent types (a.k.a. –As a result, they typically aren’t as efficient. There are two types of programming languages, which can be categorized into the following ways: 1.Low level language: Machine language (1GL), Assembly language (2GL) 2. The earliest programming languages were assembly languages, not far removed from instructions directly executed by hardware. Assembly languages, that are thin wrappers over a corresponding machine language 3. Programming Language • Pseudocodes: interpreters for assembly language • Fortran: the first higher level programming language • COBOL: he first business oriented language • Algol: one of the most influential programming languages ever designed • LISP: the first language … After providing some background on the λ-calculus and basic Some types are: 1. The study of type systems--and of programming languages from a type-theoretic perspective--has important applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compilers, and security. “doing it the hard way”) — e.g., Cayenne •controlling dependent types to ensure tractable typechecking (and good interaction with nontermination, effects, etc.) • The term programming language usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal. help them. ÿØÿà JFIF Ü Ü ÿÛ C A constraint programming language is a declarative programming language where relationships between variables are expressed as constraints.Execution proceeds by attempting to find values for the variables which satisfy all declared constraints. $.' This is a graduate-level text, covering a great deal of material on programming language semantics. The machine language also referred to as the native language of the computer system is the first generation programming language. Ada was one of the first widely-used languages to have a language construct representing an abstraction (a package), an abstract data type (a private type), multi-threading (tasks), generic templates, exception handling, strongly-typed separate compilation, subprogram inlining, etc. C language is the building block for many other currently known languages, It has a variety of data types and powerful operators, C program is basically the collection of functions that are supported by the C library, So you can add your own functions to C library, so, the programming task becomes simple, C language is the structured programming language. Types of Programming Languages & Translators O level Computer Science (2210) Prepared By: Engr. It then discusses the criteria used for evaluating programming languages and language constructs. programming languages: C Programming Java Programming Python Programming A major part of the tutorial has been explained by taking C as programming language and then we have shown how similar concepts work in Java and Python. Languages are matched to the type of applications which are to be programmed using the language. the lexical, syntactic, and semantic structures of programming languages, data and data types, program processing and preprocessing, and the life cycles of program development. :‡-ˆFjç@ÞGŽÄM^_x?™þÔ¤þÉÌ÷‚ Consequently, the notation develops into a programming language with many of the bad features of old, long-since rejected programming languages. MIT Press. • Programming languages can be used to create computer programs. Different languages have different purposes, so it makes sense to talk about different kinds, or types, of languages. The ideal language would be one which expresses precisely the specification of a problem to be solved, and converts it into a Structured Text (ST) Structured Text PLC language is shortly denoted by the ‘ST’ and ‘STX‘. Machine languages, that are interpreted directly in hardware 2. The figure shows an example of machine code. Brinch Hansen (1999) points out that, although safe and provably Levels of Programming Language •High-level Programming Language –e.g. Since types and programming languages are by now a large subject, a stringent selection of topics is necessary. ",#(7),01444'9=82. •Pierce, B. C. (2002) Types and Programming Languages. Machine code, one example of a low-level language, uses code that consists of just two numbers — 0 and 1. Usually, programming languages can be classified into a few types, however, these languages support multiple programming style. Advantages of first generation language 1. Computer programming language, any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a computer. There is an unfortunate tendency in Computer Science to re-invent language features without carefully studying previous work. In the machine language, a programmer only deals with a binary number. PROG0101 Fundamentals of Programming 5 These types of computer programming languages include the C, Python, Visual basic and the java programming languages. The following paragraphs outline the contents of the eleventh edition. at the machine level. High level languages:Procedural-Oriented language (3GL),Problem-Oriented language (4GL),Natural language … ECLiPSe; Command line interface languages. Every year there are a number of programming languages are implemented, but few languages are becoming very popular which may used by a professional programmer in their career. The book concentrates on the use of type systems in programming languages, at the expense of some topics (such EXaŽÅÌñ–ó¶À°9BàhJ¸†€¹×õ,¯ÈèÜ ˜Æ¿îG¦¢³0OÅݑf¥EÜñš›Q.µxæ6ѭՁeôbaÛ», "|ïºëIÀÁ/‰l:M\-ÓD8\ô~¯Z~/ŒÌF,Vš²zO–p[£íôêùøuk”“Qý(ԙmþúΉk§µ•4“ÓõÔê:&&‘ÄóKíÑüœ˜ýµiޛñàB’MDvDÑu©Î Machine Language: a language that is directly interpreted into the hardware Assembly Language: a slightly more user-friendly language that directly corresponds to machine language Machine Language. • A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules (syntax) for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. type systems, universal and existential polymorphism, type reconstruction, subtyping, bounded quantification, recursive types, and type operators, with shorter discussions of numerous other topics. C was used exclusively on UNIX and on mini-computers. The first half (through to Chapter 15) is relevant to this course, and some of the later material relevant to the Part II Types course. Scripting languages, that are generally extremely high-level and … A second main goal is pragmatism. <> Dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages are not included. The first generation programming language is also called low-level programming language because they were used to program the computer system at a very low level of abstraction. A programming language’s syntax is the set of rules for writing correct language statements. The study of type systems for programming languages has emerged over the past decade as one of the most active areas of computer science research, with impor-tant applications in software engineering, programming language design, high-performance compiler implementation, and security of … ه8e-¦’SÔbÊ«{òåMQZÁs’®™ÓWiŽ$)xå-Be°’¬7␓½¿Fµ'¨cÅÐhvʙJÙõj—ãO¬3J#úéˆ;1ËJÁþÍ-È¢˜ùÊ_‹%Ÿæþ,û\Ê‰t:›œKé) ÏÎÙFL§,w®×SDµ§ÁCþ9Ï«=OÌ They are translation free and can be directly execut… A comprehensive introduction to type systems and programming languages. System languages, that are designed for writing low-level tasks, like memory and process management 5. The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order. So after completion of this tutorial, you will be quite familiar with these popular programming languages. One way to classify programming languages is either as low-level languages or high-level languages. Programming Fundamentals 17 The C Programming Language In the 1970s, at Bell Laboratories, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan designed the C programming language. –These are very convenient, but also very far removed from the computer they are running on. •Type checking •Easier to debug •You may never even see a memory address. some other language constructs is discussed in various other parts of the book. Types and Programming Languages is designed for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course and assumes some familiarity with functional programming. stream for many of the advanced features in other programming languages. 1.1 Reasons for Studying Concepts of Programming Languages 1.2 Programming Domains,Language Evaluation Criteria 1.3 Influences on Language Design,Language Categories 1.4 Programming Paradigms-Imperative , Functional Programming language 1.5 Language Implementation-compilation and interpretation Command-line interface (CLI) languages are also called batch languages or job control languages. Low-level languages interact directly with the computer processor or CPU, are capable of performing very basic commands, and are generally hard to read. ÿÕýú݈½8I&óaò†–g èÐBQڈ[j,D’¿¸ÆäÆÙ¾Ž(t %ùí•\q‡Û`i8Û×u’íµÓe='Âp)Zªœ4ä¯ýî8Š¢t¢~¨¿ÏÌ\–H/š­é=ÃÚ ëë¬gáEز~. ¶ª˜”^Ä¢}¿÷fº¸¼ì¦ƒéôÕ\ð#Ž4h¥µF"íÁ“†Äjدâèólãaó»Fk‡Úž­/âècÁ( ðÝ ý 5 0 obj Assembly language, anothe… i.e. {vèÀV­F80«k¼†I¸‚þö:ª›žÎ ºîÙ»,Žä\a.KnÄodÂB#;6Z)‰~ýó¬4‡Ó«š½-‘‰­á {ù¼’ gîšÄpº&Yš¤…ðÅU¿m[õÇ Q$êÓ4†Ç•*Ö *|Q9Æ[email protected]$vnñA Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. endstream Although there are many computer languages, relatively few are widely used. Machine Language. 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